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No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India

This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got.
I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are)
Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010.
One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit.
Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells.
So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain).
Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
Moving on:
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Convenient.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
- Chandra et al. (1989)
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided.
It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)

Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles. India bought something and paid for it. State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.

Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.

The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.

Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
Dewey (1978) points out reliability issues with Indian agriculutural statistics, however this calorie decline persists to this day. Some of it is attributed to less food being consumed at home Smith (2015), a lower infectious disease burden Duh & Spears (2016) and diversified diets Vankatesh et al. (2016).
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally.
Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no.
From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period, the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
A view echoed in Raychaudhuri (1983):
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground.
1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example see Rajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
or see Bryant 2000:
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist. [...] Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.

Bibliography

Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press
Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian
Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost
Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian
Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice
Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times
Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan
Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times
Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia
Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review
Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books
Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press
Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire
Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press
Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press
Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press
Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy
Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal
Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review
Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly
Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press
Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History
Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press
Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History
Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
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Why Is Brexit Taking So Long Time?

Why Is Brexit Taking So Long Time?

Photo: Internet
What is the European Union?
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 27 member states located primarily in Europe.EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market.
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David Cameron to quit after UK votes to leave the EU.
When might Britain actually leave the EU?
UK left the EU on 31 January 2020, but that is not the end of the Brexit story.
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Aside from trade, many other aspects of the future UK-EU relationship will need to be decided. For example, Law enforcement, data sharing, and security; aviation standards and safety; access to fishing waters; supplies of electricity and gas; licensing and regulation of medicines.

Photo: BBC
What will happen to the UK after the Brexit?
In terms of economy, the UK, which has withdrawn from the European Union, saves 8 billion pounds (this amount of money is equivalent to 0.5% of the UK's GDP) every year it pays to the EU's finances. After Brexit, immigration policies can also be further tightened to free up more jobs and labor benefits. Finally, Brexit can get rid of the red tape of the EU (about 70% of the laws in the UK are governed by EU laws), for example, no longer implementing the EU's common agricultural policy.
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Gold, oil, economics & the unpredictable markets


GOLD - Trading environment:

OIL - Trading environment:
ECONOMICS - Where we are heading at:
TAKEAWAYS FOR INVESTORS - What happens next?
This is definitely a very volatile trading environment. It is hard for individual investors to position themselves. I ’ve started to feel that a diversified allocation in different trading strategies is much safer than trying to time the market or implement the strategies on my own.Until now I used to invest through Interactive Brokes (for options, futures, Forex, bonds, and funds) and Vanguard for some ETFs. I ’ve now found Daedalus platform, which seems to be having a good combo of alternative strategies. It actually has Hedge Funds, but with very low tickets, which helps me a lot.Any ideas of other trading strategies or platforms that offer them?
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Kishore M

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Kishore M

Kishore M ( BCOM, MBA, CEP (IIT), ADSM) worked in Silicon Valley, he is an Ex-Hedge Fund Manager, Founder of www.future1exchange.com a Crypto Exchange, Founder of www.future1coin.com a Crowdfunding Catalyst Company, Founder of www.worldblockchainevents.com a Blockchain Events & Training Company, Founder of www.championtradersacademy.com a FX & Crypto Academy, Founder of www.crowdfundjunction.com a Blockchain Advisory Company

He has over a decade of experience in the Stock, CFD, Forex, ADR’s, Commodities, Index, Futures, Options & Cryptocurrency. He received his Master in Business Administration from Institute for Technology and Management in association/collaboration with Southern New Hampshire University Manchester, USA earlier known as New Hampshire College, Mastering Alternative Investments Certificate from INSEAD Campus in Singapore, his certificate in Computer Network & Internet Applications Course(CEP) from IIT Kharagpur and his Advance Diploma in Computer Systems Management from NIIT.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Kishore Mansinghani is a certified Investment Representative, ETS Derivatives Qualified Trader. He is trained by Chicago Board of Exchange and Pacific Stock Exchange Members in Derivatives Instruments on Options & Futures Trading and educated in Derivatives instruments from the University of California Berkeley (Ext), USA.


Kishore M started his career with a Securities Broking Firm on the OTCEI Exchange and subsequently worked in USA (Silicon Valley) with Asia-Tech a B2B Marketplace and then started his own hedge fund in Singapore. He has conducted Stock & Derivatives seminars for International Brokers such as REFCO based in Singapore and Regional brokers such as CIMB based in Malaysia.

He has been featured in Singapore Stock Exchange Magazine, Indonesia (JawaPos) & Middle East Newspaper (Khaleej Times) and has also been featured in Bloomberg TV, BBC, Malaysia Business TV Channel & Singapore Channel NewsAsia, News Radio 93.8 FM, Asian Banker Journal, and on Global Hedge Fund websites such as Hedge fund Center, HedgeWeek, HedgeFund Research and Hedge Funds World.

His Entrepreneurial skills had won him the TII status(Technopreneur Investment Incentive Status) from the EDB Singapore Government. He is a member of TiE Silicon Valley world’s leading tech entrepreneurs network and one of the most sought-after speakers for entrepreneurship, capital markets, derivatives, cryptocurrency, and Alternative Investment.

He is a Strategy advisor to companies planning their token offering and offers tokenomics & blockchain development consultancy. He also provides Forex, Derivatives & Cryptocurrency workshop to senior corporate management teams, Broking Houses and Derivative Exchanges Members and conducts Financial Markets & Digital Currency Seminars to public audiences across Asia & Middle East. He has trained over 50,000 participants in 10 countries (Hongkong, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Middle East, Philippines, London etc) in the area of alternative investments, some of his participants include professionals from ABN AMRO Bank, RHB Securities, AMEX, Deutsche Bank, HSBC, Citibank, Doha Bank, CIMB Securities, Manfinancial, REFCO, DBSVICKERS, CSFB, UOB Bank. Under his proprietary trading company Future Capital Holdings, he has a performance track record of 99.05% return (2003-2004) and 233.13% return (2003-2005) attested & certified by Auditors.
submitted by kishorem02 to u/kishorem02 [link] [comments]

Kishore M

Kishore M ( BCOM, MBA, CEP (IIT), ADSM) worked in Silicon Valley, he is an Ex-Hedge Fund Manager, Founder of www.future1exchange.com a Crypto Exchange, Founder of www.future1coin.com a Crowdfunding Catalyst Company, Founder of www.worldblockchainevents.com a Blockchain Events & Training Company, Founder of www.championtradersacademy.com a FX & Crypto Academy, Founder of www.crowdfundjunction.com a Blockchain Advisory Company

He has over a decade of experience in the Stock, CFD, Forex, ADR’s, Commodities, Index, Futures, Options & Cryptocurrency. He received his Master in Business Administration from Institute for Technology and Management in association/collaboration with Southern New Hampshire University Manchester, USA earlier known as New Hampshire College, Mastering Alternative Investments Certificate from INSEAD Campus in Singapore, his certificate in Computer Network & Internet Applications Course(CEP) from IIT Kharagpur and his Advance Diploma in Computer Systems Management from NIIT.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Kishore Mansinghani is a certified Investment Representative, ETS Derivatives Qualified Trader. He is trained by Chicago Board of Exchange and Pacific Stock Exchange Members in Derivatives Instruments on Options & Futures Trading and educated in Derivatives instruments from the University of California Berkeley (Ext), USA.


Kishore M started his career with a Securities Broking Firm on the OTCEI Exchange and subsequently worked in USA (Silicon Valley) with Asia-Tech a B2B Marketplace and then started his own hedge fund in Singapore. He has conducted Stock & Derivatives seminars for International Brokers such as REFCO based in Singapore and Regional brokers such as CIMB based in Malaysia.

He has been featured in Singapore Stock Exchange Magazine, Indonesia (JawaPos) & Middle East Newspaper (Khaleej Times) and has also been featured in Bloomberg TV, BBC, Malaysia Business TV Channel & Singapore Channel NewsAsia, News Radio 93.8 FM, Asian Banker Journal, and on Global Hedge Fund websites such as Hedge fund Center, HedgeWeek, HedgeFund Research and Hedge Funds World.

His Entrepreneurial skills had won him the TII status(Technopreneur Investment Incentive Status) from the EDB Singapore Government. He is a member of TiE Silicon Valley world’s leading tech entrepreneurs network and one of the most sought-after speakers for entrepreneurship, capital markets, derivatives, cryptocurrency, and Alternative Investment.

He is a Strategy advisor to companies planning their token offering and offers tokenomics & blockchain development consultancy. He also provides Forex, Derivatives & Cryptocurrency workshop to senior corporate management teams, Broking Houses and Derivative Exchanges Members and conducts Financial Markets & Digital Currency Seminars to public audiences across Asia & Middle East. He has trained over 50,000 participants in 10 countries (Hongkong, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Middle East, Philippines, London etc) in the area of alternative investments, some of his participants include professionals from ABN AMRO Bank, RHB Securities, AMEX, Deutsche Bank, HSBC, Citibank, Doha Bank, CIMB Securities, Manfinancial, REFCO, DBSVICKERS, CSFB, UOB Bank. Under his proprietary trading company Future Capital Holdings, he has a performance track record of 99.05% return (2003-2004) and 233.13% return (2003-2005) attested & certified by Auditors.
submitted by kishorem02 to u/kishorem02 [link] [comments]

Kishore M

Kishore M ( BCOM, MBA, CEP (IIT), ADSM) worked in Silicon Valley, he is an Ex-Hedge Fund Manager, Founder of www.future1exchange.com a Crypto Exchange, Founder of www.future1coin.com a Crowdfunding Catalyst Company, Founder of www.worldblockchainevents.com a Blockchain Events & Training Company, Founder of www.championtradersacademy.com a FX & Crypto Academy, Founder of www.crowdfundjunction.com a Blockchain Advisory Company

He has over a decade of experience in the Stock, CFD, Forex, ADR’s, Commodities, Index, Futures, Options & Cryptocurrency. He received his Master in Business Administration from Institute for Technology and Management in association/collaboration with Southern New Hampshire University Manchester, USA earlier known as New Hampshire College, Mastering Alternative Investments Certificate from INSEAD Campus in Singapore, his certificate in Computer Network & Internet Applications Course(CEP) from IIT Kharagpur and his Advance Diploma in Computer Systems Management from NIIT.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Kishore Mansinghani is a certified Investment Representative, ETS Derivatives Qualified Trader. He is trained by Chicago Board of Exchange and Pacific Stock Exchange Members in Derivatives Instruments on Options & Futures Trading and educated in Derivatives instruments from the University of California Berkeley (Ext), USA.


Kishore M started his career with a Securities Broking Firm on the OTCEI Exchange and subsequently worked in USA (Silicon Valley) with Asia-Tech a B2B Marketplace and then started his own hedge fund in Singapore. He has conducted Stock & Derivatives seminars for International Brokers such as REFCO based in Singapore and Regional brokers such as CIMB based in Malaysia.

He has been featured in Singapore Stock Exchange Magazine, Indonesia (JawaPos) & Middle East Newspaper (Khaleej Times) and has also been featured in Bloomberg TV, BBC, Malaysia Business TV Channel & Singapore Channel NewsAsia, News Radio 93.8 FM, Asian Banker Journal, and on Global Hedge Fund websites such as Hedge fund Center, HedgeWeek, HedgeFund Research and Hedge Funds World.

His Entrepreneurial skills had won him the TII status(Technopreneur Investment Incentive Status) from the EDB Singapore Government. He is a member of TiE Silicon Valley world’s leading tech entrepreneurs network and one of the most sought-after speakers for entrepreneurship, capital markets, derivatives, cryptocurrency, and Alternative Investment.

He is a Strategy advisor to companies planning their token offering and offers tokenomics & blockchain development consultancy. He also provides Forex, Derivatives & Cryptocurrency workshop to senior corporate management teams, Broking Houses and Derivative Exchanges Members and conducts Financial Markets & Digital Currency Seminars to public audiences across Asia & Middle East. He has trained over 50,000 participants in 10 countries (Hongkong, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Middle East, Philippines, London etc) in the area of alternative investments, some of his participants include professionals from ABN AMRO Bank, RHB Securities, AMEX, Deutsche Bank, HSBC, Citibank, Doha Bank, CIMB Securities, Manfinancial, REFCO, DBSVICKERS, CSFB, UOB Bank. Under his proprietary trading company Future Capital Holdings, he has a performance track record of 99.05% return (2003-2004) and 233.13% return (2003-2005) attested & certified by Auditors.
td {border: 1px solid #ccc;}br {mso-data-placement:same-cell;}->https://kishoremforex.news.blog/2020/02/11/what-is-forex/
submitted by kishoreM01 to u/kishoreM01 [link] [comments]

Kishore M Scam real or fake?

Kishore M ( B.COM , MBA, CEP (IIT), ADSM) worked in Silicon Valley, he is an Ex-Hedge Fund Manager, Ex-Director of Global Blockchain foundation Global Blockchain Foundation, Founder of Future1coin a Crowdfunding Catalyst Company, Founder of WEBT a Blockchain Events & Training Company, Founder of Champion Traders Academy a FX & Crypto Academy, Founder of Future1Exchange a P2P Crypto Exchange. He has over a decade of experience in the Stock, CFD, Forex, ADR’s, Commodities, Index, Futures, Options & Cryptocurrency. He received his Master in Business Administration from Institute for Technology and Management in association/collaboration with Southern New Hampshire University Manchester, USA earlier known as New Hampshire College, Mastering Alternative Investments Certificate from INSEAD Campus in Singapore, his certificate in Computer Network & Internet Applications Course(CEP) from IIT Kharagpur and his Advance Diploma in Computer Systems Management from NIIT.
Kishore Mansinghani is a certified Investment Representative, ETS Derivatives Qualified Trader. He is trained by Chicago Board of Exchange and Pacific Stock Exchange Members in Derivatives Instruments on Options & Futures Trading and educated in Derivatives instruments from the University of California Berkeley (Ext), USA.
Kishore M started his career with a Securities Broking Firm on the OTCEI Exchange and subsequently worked in USA (Silicon Valley) with Asia-Tech a B2B Marketplace and then started his own hedge fund in Singapore. He has conducted Stock & Derivatives seminars for International Brokers such as REFCO based in Singapore and Regional brokers such as CIMB based in Malaysia.
He has been featured in Singapore Stock Exchange Magazine, Indonesia (JawaPos) & Middle East Newspaper (Khaleej Times) and has also been featured in Bloomberg TV, BBC, Malaysia Business TV Channel & Singapore Channel NewsAsia, News Radio 93.8 FM, Asian Banker Journal, and on Global Hedge Fund websites such as Hedge fund Center, HedgeWeek, HedgeFund Research and Hedge Funds World.
His Entrepreneurial skills had won him the TII status(Technopreneur Investment Incentive Status) from the EDB Singapore Government. He is a member of TiE Silicon Valley world’s leading tech entrepreneurs network and one of the most sought-after speakers for entrepreneurship, capital markets, derivatives, cryptocurrency, and Alternative Investment.
He is a Strategy advisor to companies planning their token offering and offers tokenomics & blockchain development consultancy. He also provides Forex, Derivatives & Cryptocurrency workshop to senior corporate management teams, Broking Houses and Derivative Exchanges Members and conducts Financial Markets & Digital Currency Seminars to public audiences across Asia & Middle East. He has trained over 50,000 participants in 10 countries (Hongkong, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Middle East, Philippines, London etc) in the area of alternative investments, some of his participants include professionals from ABN AMRO Bank, RHB Securities, AMEX, Deutsche Bank, HSBC, Citibank, Doha Bank, CIMB Securities, Manfinancial, REFCO, DBSVICKERS, CSFB, UOB Bank. Under his proprietary trading company Future Capital Holdings, he has a performance track record of 99.05% return (2003-2004) and 233.13% return (2003-2005) attested & certified by Auditors.
submitted by kishoremansinghani to forexbets [link] [comments]

Kishore M Future1Coin

Kishore M ( B.COM , MBA, CEP (IIT), ADSM) worked in Silicon Valley, he is an Ex-Hedge Fund Manager, Ex-Director of Global Blockchain foundation Global Blockchain Foundation, Founder of Future1coin a Crowdfunding Catalyst Company, Founder of WEBT a Blockchain Events & Training Company, Founder of Champion Traders Academy a FX & Crypto Academy, Founder of Future1Exchange a P2P Crypto Exchange. He has over a decade of experience in the Stock, CFD, Forex, ADR’s, Commodities, Index, Futures, Options & Cryptocurrency. He received his Master in Business Administration from Institute for Technology and Management in association/collaboration with Southern New Hampshire University Manchester, USA earlier known as New Hampshire College, Mastering Alternative Investments Certificate from INSEAD Campus in Singapore, his certificate in Computer Network & Internet Applications Course(CEP) from IIT Kharagpur and his Advance Diploma in Computer Systems Management from NIIT.
Kishore Mansinghani is a certified Investment Representative, ETS Derivatives Qualified Trader. He is trained by Chicago Board of Exchange and Pacific Stock Exchange Members in Derivatives Instruments on Options & Futures Trading and educated in Derivatives instruments from the University of California Berkeley (Ext), USA.
Kishore M started his career with a Securities Broking Firm on the OTCEI Exchange and subsequently worked in USA (Silicon Valley) with Asia-Tech a B2B Marketplace and then started his own hedge fund in Singapore. He has conducted Stock & Derivatives seminars for International Brokers such as REFCO based in Singapore and Regional brokers such as CIMB based in Malaysia.
He has been featured in Singapore Stock Exchange Magazine, Indonesia (JawaPos) & Middle East Newspaper (Khaleej Times) and has also been featured in Bloomberg TV, BBC, Malaysia Business TV Channel & Singapore Channel NewsAsia, News Radio 93.8 FM, Asian Banker Journal, and on Global Hedge Fund websites such as Hedge fund Center, HedgeWeek, HedgeFund Research and Hedge Funds World.
His Entrepreneurial skills had won him the TII status(Technopreneur Investment Incentive Status) from the EDB Singapore Government. He is a member of TiE Silicon Valley world’s leading tech entrepreneurs network and one of the most sought-after speakers for entrepreneurship, capital markets, derivatives, cryptocurrency, and Alternative Investment.
He is a Strategy advisor to companies planning their token offering and offers tokenomics & blockchain development consultancy. He also provides Forex, Derivatives & Cryptocurrency workshop to senior corporate management teams, Broking Houses and Derivative Exchanges Members and conducts Financial Markets & Digital Currency Seminars to public audiences across Asia & Middle East. He has trained over 50,000 participants in 10 countries (Hongkong, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Middle East, Philippines, London etc) in the area of alternative investments, some of his participants include professionals from ABN AMRO Bank, RHB Securities, AMEX, Deutsche Bank, HSBC, Citibank, Doha Bank, CIMB Securities, Manfinancial, REFCO, DBSVICKERS, CSFB, UOB Bank. Under his proprietary trading company Future Capital Holdings, he has a performance track record of 99.05% return (2003-2004) and 233.13% return (2003-2005) attested & certified by Auditors.
submitted by kishoremansinghani to ForexMasterTrading [link] [comments]

Kishore M Future1Exchange

Kishore M ( B.COM , MBA, CEP (IIT), ADSM) worked in Silicon Valley, he is an Ex-Hedge Fund Manager, Ex-Director of Global Blockchain foundation Global Blockchain Foundation, Founder of Future1coin a Crowdfunding Catalyst Company, Founder of WEBT a Blockchain Events & Training Company, Founder of Champion Traders Academy a FX & Crypto Academy, Founder of Future1Exchange a P2P Crypto Exchange. He has over a decade of experience in the Stock, CFD, Forex, ADR’s, Commodities, Index, Futures, Options & Cryptocurrency. He received his Master in Business Administration from Institute for Technology and Management in association/collaboration with Southern New Hampshire University Manchester, USA earlier known as New Hampshire College, Mastering Alternative Investments Certificate from INSEAD Campus in Singapore, his certificate in Computer Network & Internet Applications Course(CEP) from IIT Kharagpur and his Advance Diploma in Computer Systems Management from NIIT.
Kishore Mansinghani is a certified Investment Representative, ETS Derivatives Qualified Trader. He is trained by Chicago Board of Exchange and Pacific Stock Exchange Members in Derivatives Instruments on Options & Futures Trading and educated in Derivatives instruments from the University of California Berkeley (Ext), USA.
Kishore M started his career with a Securities Broking Firm on the OTCEI Exchange and subsequently worked in USA (Silicon Valley) with Asia-Tech a B2B Marketplace and then started his own hedge fund in Singapore. He has conducted Stock & Derivatives seminars for International Brokers such as REFCO based in Singapore and Regional brokers such as CIMB based in Malaysia.
He has been featured in Singapore Stock Exchange Magazine, Indonesia (JawaPos) & Middle East Newspaper (Khaleej Times) and has also been featured in Bloomberg TV, BBC, Malaysia Business TV Channel & Singapore Channel NewsAsia, News Radio 93.8 FM, Asian Banker Journal, and on Global Hedge Fund websites such as Hedge fund Center, HedgeWeek, HedgeFund Research and Hedge Funds World.
His Entrepreneurial skills had won him the TII status(Technopreneur Investment Incentive Status) from the EDB Singapore Government. He is a member of TiE Silicon Valley world’s leading tech entrepreneurs network and one of the most sought-after speakers for entrepreneurship, capital markets, derivatives, cryptocurrency, and Alternative Investment.
He is a Strategy advisor to companies planning their token offering and offers tokenomics & blockchain development consultancy. He also provides Forex, Derivatives & Cryptocurrency workshop to senior corporate management teams, Broking Houses and Derivative Exchanges Members and conducts Financial Markets & Digital Currency Seminars to public audiences across Asia & Middle East. He has trained over 50,000 participants in 10 countries (Hongkong, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Middle East, Philippines, London etc) in the area of alternative investments, some of his participants include professionals from ABN AMRO Bank, RHB Securities, AMEX, Deutsche Bank, HSBC, Citibank, Doha Bank, CIMB Securities, Manfinancial, REFCO, DBSVICKERS, CSFB, UOB Bank. Under his proprietary trading company Future Capital Holdings, he has a performance track record of 99.05% return (2003-2004) and 233.13% return (2003-2005) attested & certified by Auditors.
submitted by kishoremansinghani to ForexMasterTrading [link] [comments]

Kishore M Founder of Future 1 Coin

Kishore M ( BCOM, MBA, CEP (IIT), ADSM) worked in Silicon Valley, he is an Ex-Hedge Fund Manager, Founder of www.future1exchange.com a Crypto Exchange, Founder of www.future1coin.com a Crowdfunding Catalyst Company, Founder of www.worldblockchainevents.com a Blockchain Events & Training Company, Founder of www.championtradersacademy.com a FX & Crypto Academy, Founder of www.crowdfundjunction.com a Blockchain Advisory Company. He has over a decade of experience in the Stock, CFD, Forex, ADR’s, Commodities, Index, Futures, Options & Cryptocurrency. He received his Master in Business Administration from Institute for Technology and Management in association/collaboration with Southern New Hampshire University Manchester, USA earlier known as New Hampshire College, Mastering Alternative Investments Certificate from INSEAD Campus in Singapore, his certificate in Computer Network & Internet Applications Course(CEP) from IIT Kharagpur and his Advance Diploma in Computer Systems Management from NIIT.
Kishore Mansinghani is a certified Investment Representative, ETS Derivatives Qualified Trader. He is trained by Chicago Board of Exchange and Pacific Stock Exchange Members in Derivatives Instruments on Options & Futures Trading and educated in Derivatives instruments from the University of California Berkeley (Ext), USA.
Kishore M started his career with a Securities Broking Firm on the OTCEI Exchange and subsequently worked in USA (Silicon Valley) with Asia-Tech a B2B Marketplace and then started his own hedge fund in Singapore. He has conducted Stock & Derivatives seminars for International Brokers such as REFCO based in Singapore and Regional brokers such as CIMB based in Malaysia.
He has been featured in Singapore Stock Exchange Magazine, Indonesia (JawaPos) & Middle East Newspaper (Khaleej Times) and has also been featured in Bloomberg TV, BBC, Malaysia Business TV Channel & Singapore Channel NewsAsia, News Radio 93.8 FM, Asian Banker Journal, and on Global Hedge Fund websites such as Hedge fund Center, HedgeWeek, HedgeFund Research and Hedge Funds World.
His Entrepreneurial skills had won him the TII status(Technopreneur Investment Incentive Status) from the EDB Singapore Government. He is a member of TiE Silicon Valley world’s leading tech entrepreneurs network and one of the most sought-after speakers for entrepreneurship, capital markets, derivatives, cryptocurrency, and Alternative Investment.
He is a Strategy advisor to companies planning their token offering and offers tokenomics & blockchain development consultancy. He also provides Forex, Derivatives & Cryptocurrency workshop to senior corporate management teams, Broking Houses and Derivative Exchanges Members and conducts Financial Markets & Digital Currency Seminars to public audiences across Asia & Middle East. He has trained over 50,000 participants in 10 countries (Hongkong, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Middle East, Philippines, London etc) in the area of alternative investments, some of his participants include professionals from ABN AMRO Bank, RHB Securities, AMEX, Deutsche Bank, HSBC, Citibank, Doha Bank, CIMB Securities, Manfinancial, REFCO, DBSVICKERS, CSFB, UOB Bank. Under his proprietary trading company Future Capital Holdings, he has a performance track record of 99.05% return (2003-2004) and 233.13% return (2003-2005) attested & certified by Auditors.
submitted by kishoremansinghani to u/kishoremansinghani [link] [comments]

Kishore M Founders Junction

Kishore M ( B.COM , MBA, CEP (IIT), ADSM) worked in Silicon Valley, he is an Ex-Hedge Fund Manager, Ex-Director of Global Blockchain foundation Global Blockchain Foundation, Founder of Future1coin a Crowdfunding Catalyst Company, Founder of WEBT a Blockchain Events & Training Company, Founder of Champion Traders Academy a FX & Crypto Academy, Founder of Future1Exchange a P2P Crypto Exchange. He has over a decade of experience in the Stock, CFD, Forex, ADR’s, Commodities, Index, Futures, Options & Cryptocurrency. He received his Master in Business Administration from Institute for Technology and Management in association/collaboration with Southern New Hampshire University Manchester, USA earlier known as New Hampshire College, Mastering Alternative Investments Certificate from INSEAD Campus in Singapore, his certificate in Computer Network & Internet Applications Course(CEP) from IIT Kharagpur and his Advance Diploma in Computer Systems Management from NIIT.
Kishore Mansinghani is a certified Investment Representative, ETS Derivatives Qualified Trader. He is trained by Chicago Board of Exchange and Pacific Stock Exchange Members in Derivatives Instruments on Options & Futures Trading and educated in Derivatives instruments from the University of California Berkeley (Ext), USA.
Kishore M started his career with a Securities Broking Firm on the OTCEI Exchange and subsequently worked in USA (Silicon Valley) with Asia-Tech a B2B Marketplace and then started his own hedge fund in Singapore. He has conducted Stock & Derivatives seminars for International Brokers such as REFCO based in Singapore and Regional brokers such as CIMB based in Malaysia.
He has been featured in Singapore Stock Exchange Magazine, Indonesia (JawaPos) & Middle East Newspaper (Khaleej Times) and has also been featured in Bloomberg TV, BBC, Malaysia Business TV Channel & Singapore Channel NewsAsia, News Radio 93.8 FM, Asian Banker Journal, and on Global Hedge Fund websites such as Hedge fund Center, HedgeWeek, HedgeFund Research and Hedge Funds World.
His Entrepreneurial skills had won him the TII status(Technopreneur Investment Incentive Status) from the EDB Singapore Government. He is a member of TiE Silicon Valley world’s leading tech entrepreneurs network and one of the most sought-after speakers for entrepreneurship, capital markets, derivatives, cryptocurrency, and Alternative Investment.
He is a Strategy advisor to companies planning their token offering and offers tokenomics & blockchain development consultancy. He also provides Forex, Derivatives & Cryptocurrency workshop to senior corporate management teams, Broking Houses and Derivative Exchanges Members and conducts Financial Markets & Digital Currency Seminars to public audiences across Asia & Middle East. He has trained over 50,000 participants in 10 countries (Hongkong, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Middle East, Philippines, London etc) in the area of alternative investments, some of his participants include professionals from ABN AMRO Bank, RHB Securities, AMEX, Deutsche Bank, HSBC, Citibank, Doha Bank, CIMB Securities, Manfinancial, REFCO, DBSVICKERS, CSFB, UOB Bank. Under his proprietary trading company Future Capital Holdings, he has a performance track record of 99.05% return (2003-2004) and 233.13% return (2003-2005) attested & certified by Auditors.
submitted by kishoremansinghani to Forextradingdaily [link] [comments]

In swaps we trust? Disappearing dollars drive currency trading dependence - Reuters

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 83%. (I'm a bot)
LONDON - As dollars dry up, global finance is growing increasingly dependent on opaque currency trading to keep cash flowing.
Swaps users had a scare in September, when the U.S. Federal Reserve had to pump cash into markets as rates in the $2.2 trillion U.S. "Repo" market spiked and spilled into FX swap markets, sending the premium to borrow dollars shooting higher.
Reflecting the increased reliance on currency markets to borrow dollars, FX swap volumes have grown to represent 49% of total currency trading, from 42% in 2013, Bank for International Settlements figures from August show.
OFF-BALANCE SHEET. Unlike regular 'spot' currency transactions, swaps involve two parties swapping one currency for another.
Many central bankers say bank borrowing and funding via swaps, which are typically used for hedging, day-to-day liquidity management or even speculation, is driving the increase in FX swaps as they are "Off-balance sheet".
The central bank official said stress tests implied some banks use swaps for more than 10% of their funding, while the BIS says dollars are on one side of 90% of all currency trades.
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: swap#1 dollar#2 bank#3 market#4 borrow#5
Post found in /Economics.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]

What Is Forex?

What Is Forex?

A New Era

Although it might seem easy to invest in Forex nowadays, by just logging into an account with a broker, deposit some money and start actively trading; it has not always been like this, as forex industry has rapidly changed in the past three decades.
Before technology and free-floating currencies took over the industry, world currency exchanges were operating under the Bretton Woods System of Money Management. This agreement established rules for commercial and financial relations among top economies, tying their currencies to gold. Hence, a currency note issued by any world government represented a real amount of gold held in a vault by that nation. When in July 1944 delegates from all over the world sign off the pact, the main goal was to reduce lack of cooperation between countries and therefore avoiding currency wars. This process of regulating the foreign exchange brought to the foundation of the international money fund (IMF) and the International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), today part of World bank Group.
However, in the early 70s the real-world economics outpaced the system, dollar suffered from severe inflation cutting its value by half. At that time unemployment rate was 6.1% and inflation 5.84%. Finally, in August 1971, U.S. government led by Richard Nixon took away gold standard, creating the first fiat currency and replacing Bretton Woods System with De Facto. Together with this there were other important measures taken by the USA president to combat that high inflation regime:
  1. This decision was driven by many European nations asking to redeem their dollars for gold, till leaving Bretton Woods System. This had an enormous impact on USD which plunged against European currencies. Consequently, USA congress release a report suggesting USD devaluation to protect the currency from foreign gougers. However, dollar dropped again, and Treasury Secretary was directed to suspend the USD convertibility with gold; hence foreign governments could no longer exchange their USD with gold.
  2. The inflation level was skyrocketing and one more action taken by Nixon was to freeze all wages and prices for 90 days, this was the first time since WWII.
  3. Import surcharge of 10% was set up to safeguard American products ensuring no disadvantage in trades.
Today, USD dominates financial markets, accounting together with the EURO, for approximately 50% of all currency exchange transactions in the world.
1971 represents the beginning of a new forex trading era, bringing this market to be the largest and most liquid in the world, with an average of daily trading volume exceeding $5trn. All the world’s combined stock markets don t even come close to this, what does this mean to you?
In an environment which is controlled by free-floating currencies moving constantly, following principles of supply and demand, there are constant and exciting trading opportunities, unavailable when investing in different markets.
In this article are shared main features of what is forex trading today and how can be an incredible new source of income for everyone who is into financial markets.

What Is Forex?

Forex is the acronym for foreign exchange which intends to be a decentralized or over the counter (OTC) marketplace, where currencies from all over the world are traded 24 hours, five days a week. Main financial centres include New York, Chicago, London, Tokyo and Frankfurt for Eurozone. It is by far the largest market in the world in terms of volume, followed by the credit market. Being highly liquid is an important feature that allows traders to be able to enter and exit their positions very quickly. Nevertheless, while trading forex, an investor should be aware of several components:
Dynamicity – forex is an extremely fast environment, this means that currency rates can move very fast, influenced by price action signals and fundamental factors. Therefore, going into forex trading, one needs to be aware of adopting serious risk and money management strategies in order to be effective, limiting losses.
Zero Sum Game – trading forex is not like investing in the stock market but is known to be a zero-sum game. For example, going into the equity market buying some tech shares, they could both rise or decrease in value. In forex is different because currencies work in pairs; for instance, an investor decides Euro will go up he or she is doing it against another currency. Thus, in this specific marketplace one currency will rise while the other will fall, meaning an investor is buying the currency hoping it will appreciate to the other, or selling the one that will depreciate.
See image below:
Figure 1: Main traded currency pairs
https://preview.redd.it/vu77ziuoyle31.png?width=574&format=png&auto=webp&s=9b1693bf27508fcb142705c309de1fc5b3e8fa19
Currency pairs are composed by a base and a price currency. Main forex trading principle is how much price currency an investor can buy using 1 unit of the base, thus, the base currency, which is the first one in line within the quotation, is always equal to 1.
Because like every financial instrument currency pairs are driven by fundamentals of supply and demand, forex is intensively influenced by geopolitical and macroeconomic factors.
Capital Markets – these are the most visible indicators of a country economic health, where usually the healthier the economy the stronger the currency. For example, a rapid sell-off from a country will show that nation is not economically stable, subsequently investors will think negatively of it depreciating its currency.
Moreover, many countries are sector driven, this means that their currencies are strictly correlated with certain resources. For instance, Canada which is a commodity-based market, CAD is strictly linked to price of Brent and metals, a swing in those will affect the Canadian currency.
Finally, credit market is also connected to forex since also relies heavily on interest rate so, a change in bond yield will have major impact on currency prices. like increase in yield will favour bullish market for USD
International Trade – Trade levels serve as a proxy for relative demand of goods from a nation, a country which goods and services that are in high demand internationally, will experience an appreciation to its currency. This is an effect driven by all other countries converting their currencies into the one of that state to purchase its goods and services. Let’s say a product from USA is in high demand globally, all the other countries must sell their currencies to buy dollars to then see their goods shipped, thus USD will appreciate.
Trade surplus and deficit also indicate a nation competitive standing in international trade. Countries with a large trade deficit are usually importers resulting in more of their currencies being sold to buy goods worldwide, thus they will see their currencies devaluate.
Geopolitics – The political landscape of a nation places a major role in the economic outlook for that country and consequently, the perceived value of its own currency. Beside building up price action strategies, based purely on price levels, forex traders constantly look at economic calendars and news to gauge what could move currencies. A geopolitical event which is having a great impact on GBP, is the election of Boris Johnson as UK prime minister, driving the local currency to 2 years low, yesterday 29th of July 2019. Therefore, when investors observe instability from a nation political environment, there are high chances that the currency of that country will depreciate.

Why Trading Forex

Beside swapping from a gold standard to free-floating, which change the whole forex trading game, technology is another crucial factor that helped this financial sector to spread globally. With the introduction of internet in the 90s forex opened to retail investors giving access to various trading platforms. The introduction of online platforms and retail investments have increased forex market volume by 5%, up to $250bn of its daily turnover. Different traders may have different reasons for selecting forex, however, mostly is because this is a fertile market plenty of daily opportunities to gauge price action and profit from it.

Volatility

How traders profit from trading forex? Basics of trading are rather simple to understand. An investor buys an asset at a certain price hoping to get rid of it for a higher price. The more volatile is the market for that specific financial instrument, the more revenue is possible to make. Therefore, a trader is looking for long up and down moves rather than market fluctuating sideways.
Volatility is great in forex and a trader can expect to regularly see prices oscillating 50-100 pips on major currency pairs almost any day of the week. Yet again, due to this enormous constant fluctuation, potential losses or gains can be very high thus, rigours money management must be applied to avoid major damages and become a profitable trader. To conclude, volatility is the main characteristic investors are looking at and that is why it is one of the main feature traders can take advantage.
See image below:

Figure 2: FDAX Volatility, H4 (30th May 2019, 16:00, 30th July 2019, 16:00)

Accessibility & Technology

While volatility is the most important element out in the market that tell us why forex is the best market to trade, accessibility comes straight after. This market is more accessible than all the others, trading forex requires an online desk position and as little as $100 to start off an account.
In comparison with the other financial markets, forex requires a rather low trading capital. Moreover, trading forex can be easily accessible from your PC, tablet or mobile since most of retail broker firms operate online. Although, accessibility cannot tell the quality of the market by itself, it definitely shows a reason why many investors try their first trading experience on forex.
Also, the rapid introduction of technology since the 90s, made trading much easier. There are every year more advanced online platforms to trade on with many possible updates and that is why trading forex is edging for many global investors.

Forex Players

Before the introduction of free-floating currency and more importantly cutting hedge technology, forex was a market that could have been traded only by institutional investors. Nowadays however, even retail and individual investor can take advantage of the huge volume forex offers every day.
Banks
Interbank market is the major responsible for the high volume registered daily in forex. This is the place where banks exchange currency among each other, facilitating forex transactions for customers and speculate for their trading desks.
  • Clients transactions: in this case banks of all size act as dealer for clients, where the bid-ask spread represents the profit for the institutions.
  • Speculation: currencies are traded to profit from their price fluctuations as well as to increase diversification on their portfolio
Because banking institutions are the biggest players in foreign exchange market, they are able to push up and down the price of currencies giving an extreme advantage and higher volatility to individual traders who are trying to gauge price moves.
Central Banks
Central banks representing their nation’s government, are crucial in forex. They oversee monetary and fiscal policies having massive influence on currency rates. A central bank is responsible for fixing the price level of its native currency on the market, in other words they take care of the regime currencies will float in the open market.
  • Floating: these are the currencies which price floats on the open market based on principles of supply and demand relative to other currencies
  • Pegged (fixed exchange rate): opposite to floating currencies pegged ones are not free-floating in the open market however, their government rather tie them to the value of a stronger foreign currency. Pegged currencies are more seen in developing countries (CYN to USD).
Because central banks manage interest rates in order to increase the competitiveness of their native nation to another.
  • Dovish: these policies will be lowering down interest rates. A central bank which applies dovish conditions aims to give economic stimulus and guard against deflation. Usually a policy intended to give economy stimulus will weakening the currency value.
  • Hawkish: on the other hand, hawkish policies lead to an increase in interest rate. A central bank that uses hawkish measures aims to reduce inflation. Typically, this kind of policies will reinforce the country currency value.
Investment Managers & Hedge Funds
Portfolio managers and hedge funds are the second investors in forex after central and investment banks. They are hired by huge institutions such as pension to manage their assets. However while portfolio managers of pool funds will buy currency to speculate on foreign securities, hedge funds execute speculative trades as part of their strategies.
Corporations
Also international corporation play a big role in forex. Those firms operating globally, buying and selling goods and services are involved in forex transactions daily. Imagine an American company producing pipes that imports Japanese components and sell the finished product to China. After the sale is closed the CYN must be converted back to USD, while the American company must exchange USD into JPY to repay for the components supply.
Moreover, company involved in international trade have an interest in forex in order to hedge the risk associated with currencies fluctuations making several foreign exchange transactions. For instance, the same American company might buy JPY at spot rate, or enter a swap agreement to obtain JPY in advance, overtaking the risk of the Japanese currency to rise in the future. Therefore, forex become crucial to run companies with many subsidiaries and suppliers all over the word.
Individual & Retail Investors
Even though this investor cluster brings to forex a very limited volume compared to financial institutions and corporations, it is rapidly growing in numbers and popularity. These base their trades on a mixture of fundamentals and technical analysis.
Bottom line, main reason why forex is the most traded market in the world is because gives everyone, from top financial institutions to retail and individual trades, opportunities to make returns on capital invested from currencies price fluctuations related to global economy.
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We need crypto currencys...

European Commission - Press release Antitrust: Commission fines Barclays, RBS, Citigroup, JPMorgan and MUFG €1.07 billion for participating in foreign exchange spot trading cartel Brussels, 16 May 2019
In two settlement decisions, the European Commission has fined five banks for taking part in two cartels in the Spot Foreign Exchange market for 11 currencies - Euro, British Pound, Japanese Yen, Swiss Franc, US, Canadian, New Zealand and Australian Dollars, and Danish, Swedish and Norwegian crowns.
The first decision (so-called “Forex - Three Way Banana Split” cartel) imposes a total fine of €811 197 000 on Barclays, The Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS), Citigroup and JPMorgan.
The second decision (so-called “Forex- Essex Express” cartel) imposes a total fine of €257 682 000 on Barclays, RBS and MUFG Bank (formerly Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi).
UBS is an addressee of both decisions, but was not fined as it revealed the existence of the cartels to the Commission.
Commissioner Margrethe Vestager, in charge of competition policy said:“Companies and people depend on banks to exchange money to carry out transactions in foreign countries. Foreign exchange spot trading activities are one of the largest markets in the world, worth billions of euros every day. Today we have fined Barclays, The Royal Bank of Scotland, Citigroup, JPMorgan and MUFG Bank and these cartel decisions send a clear message that the Commission will not tolerate collusive behaviour in any sector of the financial markets. The behaviour of these banks undermined the integrity of the sector at the expense of the European economy and consumers”.
Foreign Exchange, or “Forex”, refers to the trading of currencies. When companies exchange large amounts of a certain currency against another, they usually do so through a Forex trader. The main customers of Forex traders include asset managers, pension funds, hedge funds, major companies and other banks.
Forex spot order transactions are meant to be executed on the same day at the prevailing exchange rate. The most liquid and traded currencies worldwide (five of which are used in the European Economic Area) are the Euro, British Pound, Japanese Yen, Swiss Franc, US, Canadian, New Zealand and Australian Dollars, and Danish, Swedish and Norwegian crowns.
The Commission's investigation revealed that some individual traders in charge of Forex spot trading of these currencies on behalf of the relevant banks exchanged sensitive information and trading plans, and occasionally coordinated their trading strategies through various online professional chatrooms.
The commercially sensitive information exchanged in these chatrooms related to:
1) outstanding customers' orders (i.e. the amount that a client wanted to exchange and the specific currencies involved, as well as indications on which client was involved in a transaction),
2) bid-ask spreads (i.e. prices) applicable to specific transactions,
3) their open risk positions (the currency they needed to sell or buy in order to convert their portfolios into their bank's currency), and
4) other details of current or planned trading activities.
The information exchanges, following the tacit understanding reached by the participating traders, enabled them to make informed market decisions on whether to sell or buy the currencies they had in their portfolios and when.
Occasionally, these information exchanges also allowed the traders to identify opportunities for coordination, for example through a practice called “standing down” (whereby some traders would temporarily refrain from trading activity to avoid interfering with another trader within the chatroom).
Most of the traders participating in the chatrooms knew each other on a personal basis - for example, one chatroom was called Essex Express ‘n the Jimmy because all the traders but “James” lived in Essex and met on a train to London. Some of the traders created the chatrooms and then invited one another to join, based on their trading activities and personal affinities, creating closed circles of trust.
The traders, who were direct competitors, typically logged in to multilateral chatrooms on Bloomberg terminals for the whole working day, and had extensive conversations about a variety of subjects, including recurring updates on their trading activities.
The Commission's investigation revealed the existence of two separate infringements concerning foreign exchange spot trading:
The following table details the participation and the duration of each company's involvement in each of the two infringements:
Company
Start
End
Three Way Banana Split / Two and a half men/ Only Marge
UBS
Barclays
RBS
Citigroup
JP Morgan
10/10/2011
18/12/2007
18/12/2007
18/12/2007
26/07/2010
31/01/2013
01/08/2012
19/04/2010
31/01/2013
31/01/2013
Essex Express / Semi Grumpy Old men
UBS
Barclays
RBS
Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi (now MUFG Bank)
14/12/2009
14/12/2009
14/09/2010
08/09/2010
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stock marketing full guide 2019

stock marketing full guide 2019
stock market

What's the Stock Market? full guide.

The inventory market refers back to the assortment of markets and exchanges the place common actions of shopping for, promoting, and issuance of shares of publicly-held firms happen. Such monetary actions are performed by way of institutionalized formal exchanges or over-the-counter (OTC) marketplaces which function underneath an outlined set of laws. There may be a number of inventory buying and selling venues in a rustic or an area which permit transactions in shares and different types of securities.
Whereas each phrase - inventory market and inventory alternate - are used interchangeably, the latter time period is usually a subset of the previous. If one says that she trades within the inventory market, it implies that she buys and sells shares/equities on one (or extra) of the inventory alternate(s) which are a part of the general inventory market. The main inventory exchanges within the U.S. embrace the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), Nasdaq, the Higher Different Buying and selling System (BATS). and the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE). These main nationwide exchanges, together with a number of different exchanges working within the nation, type the inventory market of the U.S.
Although it's known as an inventory market or fairness market and is primarily identified for buying and selling shares/equities, different monetary securities - like exchange-traded funds (ETF), corporate bonds and derivatives primarily based on shares, commodities, currencies, and bonds - are additionally traded within the inventory markets.

Read also.

Inventory Market

Understanding the Inventory Market

Whereas right this moment it's potential to buy nearly every part online, there's often a delegated marketplace for each commodity. For example, folks drive to metropolis outskirts and farmlands to buy Christmas bushes, go to the native timber market to purchase wooden and different obligatory materials for house furnishings and renovations, and go to shops like Walmart for his or her common grocery provides.
Such devoted markets function a platform the place quite a few patrons and sellers meet, work together and transact. For the reason that a variety of market individuals is large, one is assured of good worth. For instance, if there is just one vendor of Christmas bushes in your complete metropolis, he could have the freedom to cost any worth he pleases because the patrons gained’t have wherever else to go. If the variety of tree sellers is massive in a standard market, they must compete in opposition to one another to draw patrons. The patrons can be spoiled for selection with low- or optimum-pricing making it a good market with worth transparency. Even whereas buying online, patrons examine costs supplied by totally different sellers on the identical buying portal or throughout totally different portals to get one of the best offers, forcing the assorted online sellers to supply one of the best worth.
An inventory market is an identical designated marketplace for buying and selling numerous sorts of securities in a managed, safe and managed the atmosphere. For the reason that inventory market brings collectively a whole bunch of hundreds of market individuals who want to purchase and promote shares, it ensures honest pricing practices and transparency in transactions. Whereas earlier inventory markets used to situation and deal in paper-based bodily share certificates, the fashionable day computer-aided inventory markets function electronically.

How the Inventory Market Works

In a nutshell, inventory markets present a safe and controlled atmosphere the place market individuals can transact in shares and different eligible monetary devices with confidence with zero- to low-operational danger. Working underneath the outlined guidelines as acknowledged by the regulator, the inventory markets act as primary markets and as secondary markets.
As the main market, the inventory market permits firms to the situation and promote their shares to the wider public for the primary time by way of the method of initial public offerings (IPO). This exercise helps firms increase obligatory capital from traders. It primarily implies that an organization divides itself into quite a few shares (say, 20 million shares) and sells part of these shares (say, 5 million shares) to the wider public at a worth (say, $10 per share).
To facilitate this course of, an organization wants a market the place these shares may be offered. This market is offered by the inventory market. If every part goes as per the plans, the corporate will efficiently promote the 5 million shares at a worth of $10 per share and acquire $50 million value of funds. Traders will get the corporate shares which they will anticipate to carry for his or her most well-liked length, in anticipation of rising in share worth and any potential revenue within the type of dividend funds. The inventory alternate acts as a facilitator for this capital elevating course of and receives a charge for its providers from the corporate and its monetary companions.
Following the first-time share issuance IPO train known as the itemizing course of, the inventory alternate additionally serves because the buying and selling platform that facilitates common shopping for and promoting of the listed shares. This constitutes the secondary market. The inventory alternate earns a charge for each commerce that happens on its platform in the course of the secondary market exercise.
The inventory alternate shoulders the accountability of making certain price transparency, liquidity, price discovery and honest dealings in such buying and selling actions. As nearly all main inventory markets throughout the globe now function electronically, the alternate maintains buying and selling techniques that effectively handle the purchase and promote orders from numerous market individuals. They carry out the worth matching operate to facilitate commerce execution at a worth honest to each patron and sellers.
A listed firm can also supply new, extra shares by way of different choices at a later stage, like by way of rights issue or by way of follow-on offers. They could even buyback or delist their shares. The inventory alternate facilitates such transactions.
The inventory alternate usually creates and maintains numerous market-level and sector-specific indicators, just like the S&P 500 index or Nasdaq 100 index, which give a measure to trace the motion of the general market.
The inventory exchanges additionally preserve all firm information, bulletins, and monetary reporting, which may be often accessed on their official web sites. An inventory alternate additionally helps numerous different corporate-level, transaction-related actions. For example, worthwhile firms might reward traders by paying dividends which often comes from the part of the corporate’s earnings. The alternate maintains all such data and will assist its processing to a sure extent.

Features of an Inventory Market

An inventory market primarily serves the next features:
Truthful Dealing in Securities Transactions: Relying on the usual rules of demand and supply, the inventory alternate wants to make sure that all market individuals have instantaneous entry to information for all purchase and promote orders thereby serving to within the honest and clear pricing of securities. Moreover, it also needs to carry out environment-friendly matching of acceptable purchase and promote orders.
For instance, there could also be three patrons who've positioned orders for purchasing Microsoft shares at $100, $105 and $110, and there could also be 4 sellers who're keen to promote Microsoft shares at $110, $112, $115 and $120. The alternate (by way of their pc operated automated buying and selling techniques) wants to make sure that one of the best purchase and greatest promote are matched, which on this case is at $110 for the given amount of commerce.
Environment-friendly Value Discovery: Inventory markets must assist an environment-friendly mechanism for worth discovery, which refers back to the act of deciding the correct worth of a safety and is often carried out by assessing market provide and demand and different components related to the transactions.
Say, a U.S.-based software program firm is buying and selling at a worth of $100 and has a market capitalization of $5 billion. Information merchandise is available in that the EU regulator has imposed a wonderful of $2 billion on the corporate which primarily implies that 40 % of the corporate’s worth could also be worn out. Whereas the inventory market might have imposed a buying and selling worth vary of $90 and $110 on the corporate’s share worth, it ought to effectively change the permissible buying and selling worth restrict to accommodate for the potential adjustments within the share worth, else shareholders might battle to commerce at a good worth.
Liquidity Upkeep: Whereas getting the variety of patrons and sellers for a specific monetary safety are uncontrolled for the inventory market, it wants to make sure that whosoever is certified and keen to commerce will get instantaneous entry to position orders which ought to get executed on the honest worth.
Safety and Validity of Transactions: Whereas extra individuals are vital for environment-friendly working of a market, the identical market wants to make sure that all individuals are verified and stay compliant with the required guidelines and laws, leaving no room for default by any of the events. Moreover, it ought to make sure that all related entities working out there should additionally adhere to the principles, and work inside the authorized framework given by the regulator.
Help All Eligible Kinds of Contributors: A market is made by quite a lot of individuals, which embrace market makers, traders, merchants, speculators, and hedgers. All these individuals function within the inventory market with totally different roles and features. For example, an investor might purchase shares and maintain them for long run spanning a few years, whereas a dealer might enter and exit a place inside seconds. A market maker gives obligatory liquidity out there, whereas a hedger might prefer to commerce in derivatives for mitigating the danger concerned in investments. The inventory market ought to make sure that all such individuals are capable of function seamlessly fulfilling their desired roles to make sure the market continues to function effectively.
Investor Safety: Together with rich and institutional traders, a really massive variety of small traders are additionally served by the inventory marketplace for their small quantity of investments. These traders might have restricted monetary information, and will not be totally conscious of the pitfalls of investing in shares and different listed devices. The inventory alternate should implement obligatory measures to supply the required safety to such traders to protect them from monetary loss and guarantee buyer belief.
For example, an inventory alternate might categorize shares in numerous segments relying on their danger profiles and permit restricted or no buying and selling by widespread traders in high-risk shares. Derivatives, which have been described by Warren Buffett as monetary weapons of mass destruction, aren't for everybody as one might lose far more than they guess for. Exchanges usually impose restrictions to forestall people with restricted revenue and information from entering into dangerous bets of derivatives.
Balanced Regulation: Listed firms are largely regulated and their dealings are monitored by market regulators, just like the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) of the U.S. Moreover, exchanges additionally mandate sure necessities – like, well timed submitting of quarterly monetary stories and instantaneous reporting of any related developments - to make sure all market individuals grow to be conscious of company happenings. Failure to stick to the laws can result in the suspension of buying and selling by the exchanges and different disciplinary measures.

Regulating the Inventory Market

An area monetary regulator or competent financial authority or institute is assigned the duty of regulating the inventory market of a rustic. The Securities and Alternate Fee (SEC) is the regulatory physique charged with overseeing the U.S. inventory markets. The SEC is a federal company that works independently of the federal government and political strain. The mission of the SEC is acknowledged as: "to guard traders, preserve honest, orderly, and environment-friendly markets, and facilitate capital formation."

Inventory Market Contributors

Together with long-term traders and brief time period merchants, there are a lot of several types of gamers related to the inventory market. Everyone has a singular function, however, lots of the roles are intertwined and rely on one another to make the market run successfully.
  • Stockbrokers, also called registered representatives within the U.S., are the licensed professionals who purchase and promote securities on behalf of traders. The brokers act as intermediaries between the inventory exchanges and the traders by shopping for and promoting shares on the traders' behalf. An account with a retail dealer is required to realize entry to the markets.
  • Portfolio managers are professionals who make investments portfolios, or collections of securities, for purchasers. These managers get suggestions from analysts and make the purchase or promote choices for the portfolio. Mutual fund firms, hedge funds, and pension plans use portfolio managers to make choices and set the funding methods for the cash they maintain.
  • Investment bankers characterize firms in numerous capacities, comparable to personal firms that wish to go public through an IPO or firms which are concerned in pending mergers and acquisitions. They care for the itemizing course of in compliance with the regulatory necessities of the inventory market.
  • Custodian and depot service suppliers, that are establishment holding prospects' securities for safekeeping in order to reduce the danger of their theft or loss, additionally function in sync with the alternative to switch shares to/from the respective accounts of transacting events primarily based on buying and selling on the inventory market.
  • Market maker: A market maker is a broker-dealer who facilitates the buying and selling of shares by posting bid and ask costs together with sustaining a listing of shares. He ensures adequate liquidity out there for a specific (set of) share(s), and income from the distinction between the bid and the ask worth he quotes.

How Inventory Exchanges Make Cash

Inventory exchanges function as for-profit institutes and cost a charge for his or her providers. The first supply of revenue for these inventory exchanges are the revenues from the transaction charges which are charged for every commerce carried out on its platform. Moreover, exchanges earn income from the itemizing charge charged to firms in the course of the IPO course of and different follow-on choices.
The alternate additionally earn from promoting market information generated on its platform - like real-time information, historical information, abstract information, and reference information – which is significant for fairness analysis and different makes use of. Many exchanges will even promote know-how merchandise, like a buying and selling terminal and devoted community connection to the alternate, to the events for an acceptable charge.
The alternate might supply privileged providers like high-frequency trading to bigger purchasers like mutual funds and asset management companies (AMC), and earn cash accordingly. There are provisions for regulatory charge and registration charge for various profiles of market individuals, just like the market maker and dealer, which type different sources of revenue for the inventory exchanges.
The alternate additionally make income by licensing their indexes (and their methodology) that are generally used as a benchmark for launching numerous merchandise like mutual funds and ETFs by AMCs.
Many exchanges additionally present programs and certification on numerous monetary matters to trade individuals and earn revenues from such subscriptions.

Competitors for Inventory Markets

Whereas particular person inventory exchanges compete in opposition to one another to get most transaction quantity, they're dealing with menace on two fronts.
Darkish Swimming pools: Dark pools, that are personal exchanges or boards for securities buying and selling and function inside personal teams, are posing a problem to public inventory markets. Although their authorized validity is topic to native laws, they're gaining a reputation as individuals save massive on transaction charges.
Blockchain Ventures: Amid rising reputation of blockchains, many crypto exchanges have emerged. Such exchanges are venues for buying and selling cryptocurrencies and derivatives related to that asset class. Although their reputation stays restricted, they pose a menace to the standard inventory market mannequin by automating a bulk of the work completed by numerous inventory market individuals and by providing zero- to low-cost providers.

Significance of the Inventory Market

The inventory market is among the most significant parts of a free-market economic system.
It permits firms to lift cash by providing inventory shares and company bonds. It lets widespread traders take part within the monetary achievements of the businesses, make income by way of capital gains, and earn cash by way of dividends, though losses are additionally potential. Whereas institutional traders {and professional} cash managers do get pleasure from some privileges owing to their deep pockets, higher information and better danger taking skills, the inventory market makes an attempt to supply a stage taking part in subject to widespread people.
The inventory market works as a platform by way of which financial savings and investments of people are channelized into the productive funding proposals. In the long run, it helps in capital formation & financial progress for the nation.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • Inventory markets are very important parts of a free-market economic system as a result of they permit democratized entry to buying and selling and alternate of capital for traders of all types.
  • They carry out a number of features in markets, together with environment-friendly worth discovery and environment-friendly dealing.
  • Within the US, the inventory market is regulated by the SEC and native regulatory our bodies.

Examples of Inventory Markets

The primary inventory market on the planet was the London inventory alternate. It was begun in a coffeehouse, the place merchants used to satisfy to alternate shares, in 1773. The primary inventory alternate in the USA of America began in Philadelphia in 1790. The Buttonwood settlement, so named as a result of it was signed underneath a buttonwood tree, marked the beginnings of New York's Wall Avenue in 1792. The settlement was signed by 24 merchants and was the primary American group of its type to commerce in securities. The merchants renamed their enterprise as New York Inventory and Alternate Board in 1817.
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How To Trade Forex

How To Trade Forex

How To Trade Forex
Learn The Basics |Advanced Topics | Chart Patterns | Choose The Best Broker
Beware of scam companies! Trade only with a good licensed broker that holds an FCA or ASIC license like these.

USE A BROKER THAT PROVIDES 0.0 pips Spreads and 500:1 Leverage for better trading!
OPEN A DEMO ACCOUNT | OPEN A LIVE ACCOUNT

How does Forex Work?

Forex trading is the simultaneous buying of one currency and selling of another…
Read more

Basic Terminology

Before trading currencies, an investor has to understand the basic terminology of the forex market…
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Fundamental Analysis

Fundamental analysis is the study of the overall economic, financial, political…
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Technical Analysis

Technical analysis is the study of prices over time, with charts being the primary tool…
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Trend Lines

The term ‘trend’ describes the current direction of the financial instrument…
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What is a Technical Indicator

Technical Indicators are a result of mathematical calculations/algorithms…
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Gold Trading

As an investment, gold is the most popular of the precious metals…
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Order Types

A market order is an order to open a buy or sell position at…
Read more

We complete our education centre with a breakdown of Gold Trading and details of the different Order Types.
You can also review our glossary to find brief definitions of various trading and financial terms you may encounter.
Once you have familiarised yourself with the information and concepts, you can open a Demo Trading Account to practice what you have learnt and build on your knowledge and understanding of how to trade successfully. Treat your demo account as you would your real account.
Aprender a operar con Forex | Lernen Sie Forex zu handeln

  1. What is Forex? Think the stock market is huge? Think again. Learn about the LARGEST financial market in the world and how to trade in it.
    1. What Is Forex?Learn about this massively huge financial market where fiat currencies are traded.
    2. What Is Traded In Forex?Currencies are the name of the game. Yes, you can buy and sell currencies against each other as a short-term trade, long-term investment, or something in-between.
    3. Buying And Selling Currency PairsThe first thing that you need to know about forex trading is that currencies are traded in pairs; you can’t buy or sell a currency without another.
    4. Forex Market Size And LiquidityThe Forex market is yuuuuuuuggggeeee! And that comes with a lot of benefits for currency traders!
    5. The Different Ways To Trade ForexSome of the more popular ways that traders participate in the forex market is through the spot market, futures, options, and exchange-traded funds.
  2. Why Trade Forex? Want to know some reasons why traders love the forex market? Read on to find out what makes it so attractive!
    1. Why Trade Forex: Advantages Of Forex TradingLow transaction costs and high liquidity are just a couple of the advantages of the forex market.
    2. Why Trade Forex: Forex vs. StocksNobody likes bullies! Good thing for us, unlike the stock market, there is no one financial institute large enough to corner the forex market!
    3. Why Trade Forex: Forex vs. FuturesThe futures market trades a puny $30 billion per day. Thirty billion? Peanuts compared to the FIVE TRILLION that is traded daily in the forex market!
  3. Who Trades Forex? From money exchangers, to banks, to hedge fund managers, to local Joes like your Uncle Pete – everybody participates in the forex market!
    1. Forex Market StructureBecause there is no centralized market, tight competition between banks normally leads to having the best prices! Boo yeah!
    2. Forex Market PlayersThe forex market is basically comprised of four different groups.
    3. Know Your Forex History!If it wasn’t for the Bretton Woods System (and the great Al Gore), there would be no retail forex trading! Time to brush up on your history!
  4. When Can You Trade Forex? Now that you know who participates in the forex market, it’s time to learn when you can trade!
    1. Forex Trading SessionsJust because the forex market is open 24 hours a day doesn’t mean it’s always active! See how the forex market is broken up into four major trading sessions and which ones provides the most opportunities.
    2. When Can You Trade Forex: Tokyo SessionGodzilla, Nintendo, and sushi! What’s not to like about Tokyo?!? The Tokyo session is sometimes referred to as the Asian session, which is also the session where we start fresh every day!
    3. When Can You Trade Forex: London SessionNot only is London the home of Big Ben, David Beckham, and the Queen, but it’s also considered the forex capital of the world–raking in about 30% of all forex transactions every day!
    4. When Can You Trade Forex: New York SessionNew York baby! The concrete jungle where forex dreams are made of! Just like Asia and Europe, the U.S. is considered one of the top financial centers in the world, so it definitely sees its fair share of action–and then some!
    5. Best Times of Day to Trade ForexTrading is all about volatility and liquidity. Which times of day provide the most dynamic market action and volumes?
    6. Best Days of the Week to Trade ForexEach trader should know when to trade and when NOT to trade. Read on to find out the best and worst times to trade.
  5. How Do You Trade Forex? Now, it’s time to learn HOW to rake in the moolah!
    1. How to Make Money Trading ForexJust like any other market: buy low and sell high…and vice versa. Simple, right!?
    2. Know When to Buy or Sell a Currency PairLet’s start with the very basics. First, what drives the value of a currency?
    3. What is a Pip in Forex?You’ve probably heard of the terms “pips,” “pipettes,” and “lots” thrown around, and here we’re going to explain what they are and show you how their values are calculated.
    4. What is a Lot in Forex?How many units of currency can we trade? What size positions can we trade and what are they called?
    5. Impress Your Date with Forex LingoWanna impress your crush? Here are some forex terms to help you wow that special someone!
    6. Types of Forex Orders“Would you like pips with that?” Okay, not that type of order, but buying and selling currencies can be just as simple with a little practice.
    7. Demo Trade Your Way to SuccessCurrency market behavior is constantly evolving. Trade on demo first to get a lot of the rookie mistakes out of the way before risking live capital. There are no take-backs in the real market.
    8. Forex Trading is NOT a Get-Rich-Quick SchemeWhile possible if you’re a trading genius with ice in your veins and you’re luckier than a lottery winner, building wealth through trading takes time and practice to build the skills and experience needed to be successful.
📷
Via XNTRADES.com
Topics Which Every Trader Must Master.
Or at least know your Chart Patterns
Support and Resistance v.1
Support and Resistance v.2
Elliot Waves Theory
Elliott Waves 101
Harmonic Patterns
Chart Patterns
How to Trade Market Structure
More educational materials from TRESORFX.com and XNTRADES.com

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The Bloomberg Finance Lab

The Bloomberg Terminal (aka Bloomberg Professional Services) connects finance professionals to a dynamic network of information, people, and ideas. At the core of this network is the ability to deliver real-time data to finance professionals around the world.
The main value added services provided by Bloomberg Terminal are:
  1. Data
  2. News
  3. Analytics
These services are provided through innovative, proprietary technology, that quickly and accurately provides financial information to individuals and across enterprises around the world.
A world leader in providing market data information across the globe through its websites, apps and dedicated feeds and software products, Bloomberg offers a variety of tools available on free and paid basis, allowing finance professionals to use them in their research, analysis and related trading activities. Bloomberg’s coverage includes all possible financial securities ranging from equities, fixed income, derivatives, commodities, forex and OTC products, across the globe.

Bloomberg website:

The official Bloomberg website offers a wealth of free and subscription based tools and utilities, most offering customized views as per regions/markets.

Symbol Lookup Service:

Introduced couple of years back, Bloomberg Open Symbology tool offers Symbol lookup service and mapping of different symbols (SEDOL, CUSIP, ISIN, Stock exchange ticker, etc.) at global level. Individual traders as well as large investment firms having a need to consolidate data sourced from multiple sources with different symbols use this service. For e.g. a mutual fund company may take 2 different data feeds – one from Bloomberg containing Bloomberg symbol and other from Stock exchange containing local ticker. Symbology service enables cross referencing to validate data across two sources with different tickers.
Apart from the generic Open Symbology service, the widely followed Bloomberg symbols can be accessed through its dedicated symbol search tool.

Bloomberg Professional Products & Services:

The paid professional products and tools available from Bloomberg offer coverage across 360+ exchanges, 24000+ companies, global currency markets, and includes recently launched bitcoin coverage. These products and tools today are used by more than 315,000 subscribers across 175 countries, demonstrating the depth and variety of offerings from Bloomberg.
Bloomberg Market data terminal remains the most saleable product for both individual and enterprise use. A good 2 pager Getting Started Guide is available for introduction to financial analysis tools available within the Bloomberg Terminal. Apart from usual charts, graphs, technical indicators and market data coverage, one of the key selling points of Bloomberg Terminals is its instant messaging feature which enables easy communication across individuals, dedicated workgroups and even Bloomberg representatives for assistance.
Bloomberg Briefs: A dedicated service in the form of digital newsletters for the global financial markets, Bloomberg Brief offers insights into sector or region specific areas in PDF format.
Briefs for following categories are published daily – Bankruptcy & Restructuring, Economics, Economics Asia, Economics Europe, London, Municipal Market and Oil. Publication for other categories is weekly – China, Clean Energy & Carbon, Financial Regulation, Hedge Funds Europe, Hedge Funds, Leveraged Finance, Mergers, Private Equity, Structured Notes and Technical Strategies.
Such wide varieties of tools offered by Bloomberg come with lots of portability. All website based functionality can be accessed through standard browsers on mobiles and tablets, and even professional products offer portability for mobile and remote access through desktops, laptops, tablets and smartphones.

Bloomberg Enterprise Solutions

At the enterprise level, Bloomberg offers dedicated data feeds, pricing, reference and market data, news and information services to meet the needs of large financial enterprises employing financial analysts, traders and researchers. The Bloomberg trading solutions, offer connectivity and integration for buy side and sell side institutional clients. These find usage in complementing the OMS (Order management system), and recent EMS (Execution management system), for trade execution.
N L Dalmia has set up Mumbai’s first Bloomberg Finance Lab with 12 Bloomberg terminals, offering students extremely focused and high end knowledge programs with a high degree of practical learning and on-the-job applicability. Learning mba in mumbai from N L Dalmia is a step towards boosting one's career.
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The Bloomberg Finance Lab Launched at N L Dalmia Campus Mumbai

The Bloomberg Terminal (aka Bloomberg Professional Services) connects finance professionals to a dynamic network of information, people, and ideas. At the core of this network is the ability to deliver real-time data to finance professionals around the world.
The main value added services provided by Bloomberg Terminal are:
  1. Data
  2. News
  3. Analytics
These services are provided through innovative, proprietary technology, that quickly and accurately provides financial information to individuals and across enterprises around the world.
A world leader in providing market data information across the globe through its websites, apps and dedicated feeds and software products, Bloomberg offers a variety of tools available on free and paid basis, allowing finance professionals to use them in their research, analysis and related trading activities. Bloomberg’s coverage includes all possible financial securities ranging from equities, fixed income, derivatives, commodities, forex and OTC products, across the globe.

Bloomberg website:

The official Bloomberg website offers a wealth of free and subscription based tools and utilities, most offering customized views as per regions/markets.

Symbol Lookup Service:

Introduced couple of years back, Bloomberg Open Symbology tool offers Symbol lookup service and mapping of different symbols (SEDOL, CUSIP, ISIN, Stock exchange ticker, etc.) at global level. Individual traders as well as large investment firms having a need to consolidate data sourced from multiple sources with different symbols use this service. For e.g. a mutual fund company may take 2 different data feeds – one from Bloomberg containing Bloomberg symbol and other from Stock exchange containing local ticker. Symbology service enables cross referencing to validate data across two sources with different tickers.
Apart from the generic Open Symbology service, the widely followed Bloomberg symbols can be accessed through its dedicated symbol search tool.

Bloomberg Professional Products & Services:

The paid professional products and tools available from Bloomberg offer coverage across 360+ exchanges, 24000+ companies, global currency markets, and includes recently launched bitcoin coverage. These products and tools today are used by more than 315,000 subscribers across 175 countries, demonstrating the depth and variety of offerings from Bloomberg.
Bloomberg Market data terminal remains the most saleable product for both individual and enterprise use. A good 2 pager Getting Started Guide is available for introduction to financial analysis tools available within the Bloomberg Terminal. Apart from usual charts, graphs, technical indicators and market data coverage, one of the key selling points of Bloomberg Terminals is its instant messaging feature which enables easy communication across individuals, dedicated workgroups and even Bloomberg representatives for assistance.
Bloomberg Briefs: A dedicated service in the form of digital newsletters for the global financial markets, Bloomberg Brief offers insights into sector or region specific areas in PDF format.
Briefs for following categories are published daily – Bankruptcy & Restructuring, Economics, Economics Asia, Economics Europe, London, Municipal Market and Oil. Publication for other categories is weekly – China, Clean Energy & Carbon, Financial Regulation, Hedge Funds Europe, Hedge Funds, Leveraged Finance, Mergers, Private Equity, Structured Notes and Technical Strategies.
Such wide varieties of tools offered by Bloomberg come with lots of portability. All website based functionality can be accessed through standard browsers on mobiles and tablets, and even professional products offer portability for mobile and remote access through desktops, laptops, tablets and smartphones.

Bloomberg Enterprise Solutions

At the enterprise level, Bloomberg offers dedicated data feeds, pricing, reference and market data, news and information services to meet the needs of large financial enterprises employing financial analysts, traders and researchers. The Bloomberg trading solutions, offer connectivity and integration for buy side and sell side institutional clients. These find usage in complementing the OMS (Order management system), and recent EMS (Execution management system), for trade execution.
NLDIMSR has set up Mumbai’s first Bloomberg Finance Lab with 12 Bloomberg terminals, offering students extremely focused and high end knowledge programs with a high degree of practical learning and on-the-job applicability.
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How to use a Forex Robot

How to use a Forex Robot
https://preview.redd.it/p9ga08w641121.jpg?width=600&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=2e6efec7a84f437fab19c8d2e65a737bfbc3d38f
What Is an Algorithm or Forex Robot?
In its simplest form, an algorithm is a list of steps needed to solve a problem. When referring to algorithmic trading, we refer to steps written in machine language so that a computer can understand what you want and execute trades on behalf of you and your goals. An algorithm spans multiple functions outside of trading but either way the algorithmis used; it has a clear purpose to help compute large datasets in an efficient manner while abiding by key rules to help ensure the desired outcome. Algorithms accomplish this feat without having to worry about human biases or mental fatigue and high-level and high-frequency decision-making.
-Algorithm Trading Styles
The following list is not inclusive but does cover many commonly used strategies and styles in algorithmic trading:
Mean Reversion: Reverting to the mean takes the idea that an extended move away from a long-term average is likely short-term and due for a reversion or retracement. Algorithms that quantify extended moves based on an oscillator will utilize the average price over a set time and use that level as a target. There many popular tools and calculations for quantifying an extension that is due to revert but risk management must also be included in the algorithm encasing new trend is developing.
Trend following: Trend following is the first, and still very popular technique of algorithmic-based momentum investing. Trends are easy to see, but can be hard to trade without the help of an algorithm. Because algorithms take over for the mind and the minds inherent biases, many of the fears that plague discretionary trend followers do not effect algorithms. A common fear when riding a strong trend is that it is about to turn or end, but that fear is often unfounded. One of the first widely followed trend following algorithms looked to buy a 20-day price breakout and hold that trade until a 20-day price low took them out of the trade. The traders who have and still do employ this algorithmic approach and other similar approaches are often amazed at how long the strongest trends extend that they would have likely exited had their algorithms not managed the trade and exit on their behalf.
News Trading: Another popular style of trading in the archaic world of discretionary trading that now belongs to the Quants is news trading. These strategies scan high important news events and calculate what type of print relative to prior news events and expectations would be needed to place a trade. As you can imagine, the efficiency of receiving the data and calculating whether a trade should be placed in entering that trade is of key focus. This form of algorithmic trading often gets the lion share of media’s attention.
Arbitrage:Arbitrage is a word that has multiple meetings and strategies built around the concept. Historically, you could have euros trading in London at a different price than in New York so that a trader could buy the lower and sell the higher until equilibrium had been established. Nowadays, arbitrage algorithm strategies are more geared to highly correlated assets whose underlying fundamental effects are very similar. When a wide spread in value between the highly correlated assets are recognized, the algorithm will either by the lower and or sell the higher until an equilibrium is met similar to the mean reversion strategy.
High-Frequency Trading and Scalping: For our purposes, will look at these as synonymous even though trading desks and hedge funds view them separately. True high-frequency trading attempts to beat out other traders to the thousand of a second and to do so some firms position their computers next door to an exchange to see in one millisecond faster than a competitor if something is rising by a penny.
Unless you’re looking to buy a house next to the New York Stock Exchange to compete with billion-dollar hedge funds, short-term trading or scalping is likely more up your alley. Even this term has evolved over time whereas traders use to look to make profits on the difference in the bid-ask spread but now has taken a wider meeting for very short-term traits.
For more information about algorithmic trading, click here
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Forex Price Action London Breakout Webinar Replay Forex London Open reversal trade and daily analysis from Exact Trading What Do Hedge Funds Think of Technical Analysis? - YouTube HOW TO START A HEDGE FUND WITH NO MONEY AND MAKE A BILLION ... Forex Trading Strategy (Hedge Fund Method) How Hedge Funds Trade Update on Trade Strategy Join me as I show you how the London FX traders make easy work of a days Forex Trading.

As one of the few publicly-traded hedge funds in the US – and the only one in our top ten – Och-Ziff Capital Management has different obligations to the majority of hedge funds. For starters, it has been unable to join the trend of scaling down assets in an effort to produce greater returns, as this would not be in the interests of its shareholders. Also it is obliged to have far greater ... There are said to be more than 10,000 hedge funds now in operation around the world, many of which are beginning to look towards forex as a means of chasing volatility and higher gains. Historically, forex markets have been less appealing to hedge funds and proprietary trading groups, as the number of instruments is small […] LONDON (Reuters) - Some of London's top hedge funds and asset managers are among those that have been targeted by rogue internet operators who clone their names and websites in an attempt to part ... Currency-only hedge funds were once a hot corner of the investment world. From 2000 to 2008 the tally of currency funds tracked by the BarclayHedge Currency Traders Index almost tripled, to 145. Mike Platt, the co-founder of London-based BlueCrest Capital Management, has extended his lead as the UK's richest hedge fund manager, having added £700m to his fortune over the last 12 months. Platt, who focuses on managing his own wealth rather than third-party funds, topped the ranking of hedge fund managers in the 2019 Rich List, published by The Sunday Times on May 12. Platt's wealth now ... By Maiya Keidan. LONDON (Reuters) - London-based hedge fund Maniyar Capital Advisors, which was spun out from Tudor Investment Corporation, began trading on Friday with more than $1 billion in assets under management, a source familiar with the matter said, making it one of the biggest launches of 2020. Forex Signals - Hedge Funds Bet the Euro Hedge funds are becoming even more bullish on the euro. Not only are they betting the currency’s rally will continue, they see it rising to a level last seen in early 2018. Interest to buy euro options that payout on another 5% advance over the next six-months is strong, according to two traders and a broker in London, all of whom are familiar with ... Hedging can be performed in a number of different ways within Forex. You can partially hedge, as a way to insulate against some of the brunt of an adverse move: or you can completely hedge: to totally remove any exposure to future fluctuations. There are also a number of instruments that can be used, including futures or options. But, we're going to concentrate on using the spot FX market. You ... FX Concepts' demise signals tough times for forex hedge funds. By Jamie McGeever, Laurence Fletcher. 6 Min Read. LONDON (Reuters) - The collapse of FX Concepts, once the world’s biggest currency ... List of London Hedge Funds . Below is a list of the top hedge funds based in London. This list only includes the large hedge funds, with assets under management of at least over $1 billion. Note however that those hedge funds are a mix of macro funds, relative value, credit, equity long/short, multi-strategy, fixed-income, arbitrage, activist, bonds and so on.

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Forex Price Action London Breakout Webinar Replay

What do hedge funds think of technical analysis? Corvin Codirla, ex-hedge fund manager and independent traders comments. Do you need to be good at maths to m... Forex trading uk, Forex for beginners, How to trade, How to trade forex, How to forex trade, Forex for beginners, Trading forex for beginners, trading for beginners, forex strategies, forex ... More at http:--www.exacttrading.com In this video I explain how the London Forex traders make easy work out of puttng price up against themselves in order to reverse against their own position and ... How Hedge Funds Trade Forex Part 3 - Duration: 15:01. Paul Langham 7,243 views. 15:01 . The two main reasons why you are probably curently losing money when trading FX - Duration: 19:08. Paul ... How To Trade Forex Like A Hedge Fund - Duration: 17:41. Paul Langham 40,287 views. 17:41. ... LIVE Forex Trading - LONDON, Fri, May, 1st Trade With Monty 906 watching. Live now; Make a Living in 1 ... Learn how to start a hedge fund in this short video as I share my hedge fund startup story and explain how I started as the first activist investor and globa... More at wwww.exacttrading.com In my daily analysis , today I look at the London reversal on the Forex market EURO/USD. As we noted in yesterday's video the majority of day's morning and opening ...

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